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10 dangerous misconceptions in the provision of first aid

10 опасных заблуждений при оказании первой помощи

No matter when and from where they came from, but almost every person has some knowledge about first aid. Alas, in most cases, this knowledge is a porridge of stereotypes and rumors, and the application of this cereal in practice, not just useless, but dangerous. For example, everyone knows that a fracture you need a splint. And most imagine this bus as two or three sticks, ideally — fence from the fence with the remnants of traditional painting. When there is a need to help, somehow it turns out that the man is not happy when his broken arm-leg trying to straighten and tie it to the stick.

And all because should fix the fracture in the position that is most comfortable for the victim. The limb in this case, as a rule, bent. So. You knew about this? I hope so. And because over listed below are the ten most common incorrect stereotypes of first aid will laugh at how over the long-known thing. Or think. Or remember. And best of all — you will find the time and will pass the good courses in first aid. Suddenly, God forbid, come in handy.

1. Sam dies, and friend help me out
This stereotype is tightly hammered into the heads of the older generation of movies, books and just the ideology of the Soviet time, desperately sang the heroism and self-sacrifice. No doubt — the quality of these important, valuable and sometimes even necessary. But in real life, on the street, in the city or in the countryside following memorized the rules could cost lives as the hero and saving.
A simple example — the car crashed into a pole transmission lines. The driver sits inside the unconscious, talk to him not afraid. And suddenly he rushes to the rescue hero. Seeks to the car without seeing wires, and one affected more. Then another hero, then another couple… and here we have a machine with a live driver, surrounded by a bunch of heroic bodies, and has not had time to call rescuers and “fast”. Clearly, the hype in the press, meeting with posters “how long?”, someone sued, and the whole country entered a state of emergency. In short, a mess, and why?
Because our heroes do not know one simple rule — first determine that threatens you, and only then — that threatens the victim, because if something happens to help you. Assess the situation, call the emergency services and possibly refrain from extreme heroism. As though it may sound cynical, one corpse is always better than two.

2. Get it by any means
Continue the theme of roads and traffic accidents. You will not believe how prevalent in our country the following scenario: ambulance and rescue workers come to the scene of the accident and the victims have recovered from the crumpled cars stacked in the shade and drink some water. In this voluntary rescuers pulled people from the vehicles for hands-feet and in addition to the already received injuries caught up with a couple of very General concern, like the deformation of the broken spine. So the man sat in the car, waited for assistance, specialists carefully this machine was taken apart to put him on a stretcher and transferred to doctors. Six months in the hospital and back on his feet. And now there is. Now — permanent disability. And it’s not on purpose. All out of a desire to help. Now — don’t. No need to depict rescuers. Actions witnesses an accident are as follows: call for help, disconnect the battery emergency vehicle, to random sparks flared up spilled gasoline, to fence the place of accident, stop the victim’s bleeding (if any) and before the arrival of the doctors just a man… talk. Yes, psychological support, distract, encourage, to joke in the end. The wounded must feel that the care. But to drag a man’s arms and legs from a car can only in one case — when the possible consequences of transportation will be less than its absence. For example — when the car caught fire.

3. The tab to the collar
Remember this story? In the army first aid package includes a pin, and she needed to pin the language of the unconscious man to his own collar — so that he (the language) does not fuse and is not blocked airway. And it happened, and did. Good picture — so Wake up from fainting, but with tongue out? Yes, unconscious man always sinks language. Yes, it must be borne in mind and to deal with it. But not in the same barbaric method! Have you ever ever tried the man to get out of his mouth language? No? Try. You will find the opening — it turns out to be soft, slippery and does not want to remain in the extracted position. And is unhygienic. To free up the Airways from sunken language, a person’s simply turn to one side. All the Airways are open. By the way, it is recommended to do this to all the familiar and unfamiliar drunks sleeping on the street. Put it to one side and I’ll sleep it off. But if he fell asleep lying on his back, then his life threatened by two dangers: suffocation from the tongue and choke vomit. And if one side for some reason impossible (for example — suspected spinal injury, in which generally the extra time to move the person is dangerous), just put your head back to him. That’s enough.

4. Tourniquet on the neck
By the way, this is quite possible. The wiring is superimposed on the neck, but not just so, and in hand. But it’s not about that. To harness our people’s relationship is tender and gentle. He is in every medicine Cabinet, and as with any severe bleeding citizens rush to glutamate. Some even remember that summer harness can be applied for two hours, and in winter one. And I know that venous blood color is darker than arterial. That’s just often it turns out that’s not the most life-threatening deep cut somehow shutout, so much so that on arrival at the hospital it turns out — bleeding limb can not be saved. Remember — tourniquet is applied only to stop arterial bleeding. How to distinguish? Well, certainly not by the color of blood. Firstly, shades of red and so it is not always distinguished, but there is a stressful situation. Easy mistake to make. However, it is arterial bleeding, you will learn easily. If we translate our typical pressure of 120 over 80 in the atmosphere, you get somewhere 1,4. That is, almost half. Now imagine that from a narrow tube through a small hole under the pressure of one atmosphere enters the water. I figured the fountain will be? This. It is for pressure and height of the fountain of blood unmistakably recognizable arterial bleeding. And here we must not tarry, life goes out of a man every second. So do not look for harness or rope, to take off the belt. Immediately quick clamp, one finger. Where? In places where the artery closest to the body surface and less covered — groin, armpit. Your task is to press the artery, wait stop bleeding, and then priladit to place a tourniquet. And get to the hospital. By the way, a tourniquet is placed on the clothes to make it visible. Note the time the tourniquet is better to write a marker… on the forehead of the victim. So more likely that information is not lost, and the poor guy probably forgive you this body art. But the venous bleeding — even very abundant — it is better to stop the tight pressure bandage. It does not matter if it is dripping with blood — put another layer on top. It also will allow the doctor on the thickness of the dressing to assess the severity of blood loss.

5. Burn oil it oil
We imagine, for 80% water, which, among other properties, has heat capacity. What we burn, given these data? Some heat gets on the skin and its surface goes deeper into the tissues of the body that are readily accumulate inherited them joules. Simple logic tells us that? To joules to remove the back and stop overheating, we must place the burn cool. After all, right? And just as. Poured on a burn is cool water and wait. But we expect, as it turns out, is not enough. As a rule — to mitigate the disappearance of pain, that is less than a minute. During this time, only a portion of joules comes out, the rest sitting, hiding and waiting for developments. How do we develop? Thickly smear the burn panthenol, cream, yogurt or on grandma’s recipe – butter with salt. What’s going on? Above the place where the tissues still walk notorious joules, creates a sealed bag of the stuff, closing the exit to freedom. As a result, the burn is only getting worse. But if you had the patience to stay under water for 10-15 minutes, would be quite another matter. And panthenol, and other funds began to work with the damaged area of skin from which all the heat is withdrawn.

6. RUB his ears
Russia is a cold place, so one of the threats for the Russian people — frostbite. Faced with it, almost everything — his ears and nose are white, lose sensitivity, but when rubbed by hand or snow quickly redden, and then comes the pain. Why hurt something? Yes, because our body (sorry for simplification) — a system of tubes and provodochki where the first — blood vessels, and the second — the nerve endings. On the cold tubes freeze, the blood does not circulate on them (hence the white color), provodochki dubeet, and it all becomes brittle. And we start to pound. And Cruz-break small tube-provodochki, causing serious damage to the body. After all, even a bottle of beer frozen in the freezer, in a dramatic shift in the heat may burst. But the delicate veins… So, don’t grind. Slowly warm up. Cool or lukewarm water. Then the effects of frostbite are not so bad, and the pain returned sensitivity is not so strong.

7. Cold-warm
Remember, as it happened at high temperature – very hot and shivery. Whole body trembling, I want to lie down in a ball under the warm-warm blanket and keep warm… And it went, and even warm then, didn’t that warm in such a situation is not just harmful, but deadly. It’s very simple — high fever (more than 38) temperature indicates only one. That the temperature continues to rise and the body overheats. He needs cooling, but instead, we bundled up warmly, covered with blankets, surrounded by hot water bottles. As a result of personal thermos, in which the body is stronger and stronger. In the saddest cases, the temperature flew for a mark of 41, and then came the irreversible processes leading to death. Not often, but sometimes. So remember — at high temperature and chills do not need to bundle up. It is necessary to cool Cool bath, a light blanket, wet wiping… anything, just to give the body a chance to dump the excess heat. Be sure so the high temperature will be much easier.

8. Bank with potassium permanganate
So. Did the parents that the crystals are completely dissolved manganese in the water only at a temperature of about 70 degrees? Did they know that bodyazhit such a solution is not just pointless (optional drink antiseptics, with the aim to immediately give them back), but also dangerous, because the insoluble crystal of manganese could cause to the stomach lining a lot of troubles? No need to waste time and chemicals — to clean the stomach enough to drink 3-5 glasses of plain warm water and induce vomiting.

9. Tap-clap
The man choked, poor fellow, and coughing so that the heart screams. What other people do? Naturally, help him — knock on the back. But why do they do it? From a scientific point of view, such attacks even more annoying place where the foreign body, the choked enhanced cough reflex and not caught in the throat piece flies itself. Now imagine a drain pipe. Throw in there the cat (of course, ostensibly, we’re not sadists what) and start banging on the pipe with a stick (virtually). What do you think, what is the probability that the cat will jump out from the top of the pipe? So it is with our piece — in ninety-nine cases of people coughed. But in one piece will fall deeper into the Airways with all its consequences — the need for the intervention of a doctor to death from respiratory arrest. So — no need to knock. Even if requested. Much easier and safer to calm the man and ask him to do some slow, very slow breaths and sharp exhalations. During exhalation it is better to slightly lean forward so much, our downpipe from the vertical position shifted in the horizontal. Three or four of these breaths — and coughing increase. Piece will fly by itself, simply and safely.

10. Put something in his mouth
This is probably the most common and the most legendary misleading, in that quite seriously believe millions of Russians. This unwavering confidence that a person who has an epileptic seizure, it is necessary to unclench your teeth and paste between them something. Beauty! And insert it — trying, at least. A epileptics later, he himself, surprised to realize that they have a mouth clogged with plastic from gnawed pens (at best) or fragments of their own teeth (at worst). So: don’t! Do not poke the person in your mouth, it’s bad enough. Will make it worse. After all, what justifies such action gooders? The fact that a man in a fit can bite his tongue. Three times “ha”! Just so you know — during an attack of all human muscles are toned. Including language, which among other things also a muscle. He strained and therefore does not fall out of his mouth and will not fall between the teeth. The maximum — will bite the tip. Blood with some, but mixed with foamed saliva, it creates the appearance of unprecedented destruction — and fueled myths about languages bitten off. In General, you don’t meddle with their knives, forks and spoons. If you really want to help, kneel at the head of the epileptic and try to hold her head to avoid hitting the ground. Such attacks are much more dangerous hypothetical bit of the language. And when the active phase of the attack will be held — cramps over — gently turn the person to one side as he began the second phase of the – dream. It can last for long, but in this state the muscles are relaxed and therefore there is a possibility of suffocation from the tongue.

Such are the harsh realities of our insecure life. Preferably very well them to learn, it is no wonder that the major medical law is: “do No harm!” And the laws would be nice to observe — will be healthier.

Author Ilya Boyko, squad

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