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We will talk about DNA-genealogy of the Jews

Поговорим о ДНК-генеалогии евреев

Is it possible to validate the biblical story methods of DNA-genealogy?

I was puzzled by the fact that the Jewish population (I’m talking primarily about men, because learning is basically the DNA genealogy of carriers of Y-chromosomes, and that men in Poland, Germany, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia, which were quite numerous in the last century, all have a common ancestor, mainly in the mid-14th century ad. In other words, shtetl Jews in those regions have their origin from that time. Why?

The explanation was found. The mid-14th century is the height of the plague in Europe (1346-1351.), the plague killed more than 25 million people. Went persistent rumors that it is the handiwork of the Jews, who allegedly were infected with the wells. Went to mass pogroms and massacres and the surviving Jews rushed to escape, but where? From many European countries already banished, there was one way – to the East. The rulers of Poland, Russia, Lithuania reacted favorably to the adoption of the fugitives, and then arrived at the land of the Jews and became the forefathers soon enlarged Jewish populations.

Here is something, those of the forefathers, and identificeret DNA-genealogy of the haplotypes of modern Jews. Haplogroup and they were very different – E, G, I1, I2, J1, J2, N, R1a, R1b, T… rough times. That’s the way Ashkenazi, i.e. European Jews, and got a whole bunch of haplogroups.

But the common ancestors of Jews of the Middle East have their roots far in debraska times, in the times of the Bedouins, of which, in particular, Jews in large part happened. The most ancient haplogroup of middle Eastern Jews – E1b, J1, J2, their common ancestors of modern Jews far beyond 10 thousand years. One of the main haplogroups of the modern Middle East, haplogroup J, about 20 thousand years ago were divided into haplogroups J1 and J2.

Later, much later, in the middle East appeared haplogroup R1b and R1a, which gave their haplogroup ancestors of modern Jews about 5,500 and 4,000 years ago, respectively. It was the Bedouins and Sumerians, and Akkadians, and others who lived then.

Since Y-chromosome markers and their alleles (the same number in the haplotypes) are transmitted in a direct line, from father to son, then, of course, all siblings had to have the same markers and alleles (in haplotypes), and their father. So, if the genealogy presented in the Bible is true, then identical markers and alleles in the form of appropriate combinations of the numbers must be identical for all 12 tribes and their direct descendants to this time, and for Ishmael and his descendants.

It must be so, because Ishmael the son of Abraham and brother (by father) Isaac. And Isaac, I will remind, the father of Jacob and grandfather of the founders of the 12 tribes (and the great-grandfather of Ephraim and Manasseh, also led the corresponding tribes of Israel).

In other words, if Ishmael is indeed in this relationship, as described in the Bible, the Arabs – the direct descendants of Ishmael, and the Jews – direct descendants of the 12 tribes, including the Kohanim, direct descendants of Aaron, the great-grandson of Levi, should be identical haplotypes in our time.

The thing is, however, somewhat complicated by the fact that over the past 3600 years in the markers of this haplotype were definitely mutations. In the six-digit haplotypes, which operated the researchers 10-15 years ago, one mutation on average happens about every three thousand years. This statistical assessment, the exact answer nobody will. Hence, mutations or not (in a minority of haplotypes), or it may be from one to five mutations, within 99% of the haplotypes. This will lead to the shift of haplotype numbers up and down different numbers in different ways. In the end we get a whole cloud of haplotypes, at least a few dozen.

As for the Bible, Jews and Arabs are descended from a common ancestor named Abraham, it must be verifiable methods of DNA genealogy. A few years ago I did just that – collected the available haplotypes of Jews and Arabs of haplogroup J1, all laid down in single file and ran the program for building a tree of haplotypes.

The program distributes haplotypes on the principle of similarity and the formation of some of the other haplotypes through mutations. Thus, the related haplotype leave one branch on the tree, lining up in the order of their education, and at the core of the branch is automatically positioned by referring to the ancestral haplotype, or the ancestor is obtained by extrapolation.

Unrelated to the first branch haplotypes rebuilt in another branch, which also consists of a pyramid of its related haplotypes with their common ancestor branches.

Now, the Jews and Arabs of haplogroup J1 has created a complex tree with many branches, mostly young, aged a few centuries, and that these branches was typical – they were either exclusively Arab or exclusively Jewish. Mixed branches under the age of two or three thousand years. And it shows that the situation between Jews and Arabs is really complicated, centuries and millennia.

For example, on the tree of haplotypes of the Slavic Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians mixed in the same branches of antagonism between them – they can easily get married and get married, ethnic differences not to disturb them. Not so with the Jews and the Arabs – the cases of mixed marriages are statistically very small.
In short, only one branch on the tree of haplotypes of Jews and Arabs of haplogroup J1, the oldest, although he was double, that is, in one half of it was Jews, in other – the Arabs, came together in one point, that is, to one common ancestor.

Calculations immediately showed that he lived about four thousand years ago. This is the time of the biblical Abraham, although the haplotypes of his name, of course, is not known. We have shown that Abraham, or as it actually called, belonged to haplogroup J1, right?

No, not quite right. Because exactly the same picture – in principle – turned out and with the haplotype tree of haplogroup J2. Again immiscible branches of Jews and Arabs, and again one common double branch, which converge to one common ancestor who lived in the same 4000 years ago. What is particularly interesting – the exact same pattern happened in the haplogroup R1a.

The age of these branches, calculated by the mutations in them, equal to 1300±150 and 1075±160 years. Between their ancestral haplotype by 22 mutations, as noted above (some mutations are considered to be special rules, for example, in so-called multicopy markers), which gives 22/0.12 = 183 → 224 conditional generations, or about 5600 years between their common ancestors.

This means that common ancestors of these branches of Jews and Arabs formed from one common ancestorwho lived (5600+1300+1075)/2 = 3990 years ago. Again, about 4000 years ago.

Ten years ago in the academic literature has been published evidence that among the Ashkenazi Jews, approximately 10% have haplogroup R1a (Behar et al., 2003). But Jews have many different haplogroups, so 10% is a relatively high value for one haplogroup. Moreover, it was found that haplogroup R1a are mostly Levites, descendants of Levi, whose roots lead directly to Jacob, Isaac and Abraham.

At the end of 2013, left a detailed article about the Levites (Rootsi et al., 2013), and was published that of all the “mingled” Ashkenazi 15% have haplogroup R1a (87 people out of 600 tested Ashkenazi), and the Levites, the percentage with haplogroup R1a, ascends to 65%, that is, two-thirds of all.

Generally among popeneciu, there is still widespread belief that the haplogroup R1a is Slavic. In his article 2010 (Atzmon et al, 2010) they paganetti and write – “these impurities could occur from Ukrainians, poles or Russians.” But the authors, talking about haplogroup R1a among the Jews, did not bother to look at their haplotypes that are markedly different from those of the Slavs R1a haplogroup. Let’s see, and move on to more precise 111-marker haplotypes.

Between them was 20 mutations (marked), showing that their common ancestor, Slavs and Jews, at odds with a 20/0.198 = 101 → 112 conditional generations of 25 years each, that is 2800 years. This, in turn, places their common ancestor at (2800+4900+1300)/2 = 4500 years ago. It is the Aria, of course, the haplogroup R1a.

Here 0.198 – rate constant of mutation for 111-marker haplotypes, hand – tabular correction for recurrent mutations. Thus, the Slavs have nothing to do with it. The Aryans came from the Russian plain, one wave, they headed South, through the Caucasus to Mesopotamia, and there they came into close contact, literally, with the ancestors of modern Jews. So haplogroup R1a included in the Jewish community.

Several informed 1300 years ago that is already on the decline of the 1st thousand ad, carriers of haplogroup R1a Jews were the bottleneck population, simply put, has almost disappeared, and 1,300 years ago, their DNA line was revived. Almost all modern Jews of haplogroup R1a descendants of the surviving common ancestor 1,300 years ago, which will of fate turned out to be a Levite.

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