In the “HORN” № 52 (23.12.15–19.01.16) was from a published article “Seven problems in the industry”. The author, biologist, senior researcher, economic research Institute far Eastern branch of RAS, candidate of agricultural Sciences Grigory Isaakovich Sukhomirov understand the causes of the crisis in modern hunting economy of Russia.
The author points out that the current crisis in hunting due to the fact that it is considered from the viewpoint of hunting and “management” of resources of hunting animals, and not from the perspective of the industry of material production in its socio-economic problems. The author discusses resuscitation fishing hunting economy, the improvement of legislation on hunting economy, its organizational and management structures.
Grigory Isaakovich Sukhomirov is a veteran of the industry (60 years), scientist-economist and organizer of the commercial hunting economy of the Far East. On methodical recommendations, textbooks with the participation of this author raised Siberian generation of biologist-hunters Irkutsk school, including me.
Being a veteran in the hunting industry (30 years of working in various structures: fishing agriculture, hunting departments, nature reserves, scientific organizations; 10 years as teacher of higher professional training of biologist-hunters), I want to keep the discussion on modern problems of industry and intensive commercial hunting.
In prospects of development of the hunting economy of Russia everything is limited to Amateur sports and trophy hunting. For a commercial hunter of Siberia hunting — the main type of professional activity. The exploitation of natural biological resources and production of agricultural products for many centuries was the main source of sustenance and progress of Russia. In the period of functioning of the ìglavohotaî at the level of the Ministry of traditional types of land use in the former commercial farms until the early 1990s gave maximum employment and material security to the local taiga to the population.
By the beginning of the economic reforms of the 1990s, only in the vast Krasnoyarsk region, including Evenkia, Taimyr and Khakassia, in the field hunting operations, there were 53 large commercial farms (gospromkhoz, koopzveropromkhoz, North farms), 42 reiserechner, 111 sport farms about 30 fur farms, three breeding fur farm. Krasnoyarsk Krai took the leading a place in Siberia (43%) for the production of cellular furs. Hunting territory is given every year to the state to 80 thousand sable skins and other mustelids. Up to 100 thousand wild reindeer, moose, red deer and ROE deer were extracted for delivery of meat to the state and livelihood of families of hunters. More than 110 thousand carcasses of poultry were supplied to the export and domestic market. In the region, harvests thousands of tons of various types of berries and mushroom, fern, pine nut, honey, medicinal plants. Employment of the rural population of Taimyr and Evenkia also provided commercial reindeer herding and fishing. Only the Yenisei in the Arctic were caught annually for the export and domestic market hundreds of tons of valuable fish: brook trout, white salmon, lenok, taimen, grayling, whitefish, tugun, vendace, whitefish, broad whitefish, whitefish, round whitefish, sterlet, sturgeon, etc. of the Hunting industry contributed to the development of cell fur farming.
Science and the regular hunters were przedpremierowo the exploration of the state of animal and plant resources, has identified the timing of vhodnosti fur fur types, developed projections of future harvest. Economy of consumer cooperation and gospromkhoz plans of procurement and fur trapping, meat, fish, honey, nuts, berries, mushrooms, ferns, medicinal herbs and technical. In advance a contract with the local rural population, recruited in traditional crafts seasonal labor.
Hunting in Krasnoyarsk region had a highly qualified staff of professional hunters, certified professionals-managers, merchandisers, technologists. They provided the management and organization of production, professional integrated operation of animal and plant resources, purchase from the population of raw materials, technological processes
production, ensure the protection of the land. The intensive development and impact of industry on the environment hunting guaranteed the development of 70% of the territory.
With the transition to a market economy, Russia has witnessed repeated changes in the system of hunting management, control and supervision of use of hunting resources. Varied forms of management, production, and procurement of hotproducts. In the field of traditional biological nature, in fact, happened to organizational defeat. The state centralized one in the production of hunting products is now not engaged, everything is up for grabs. Most of the farms of a new type have weak technical capabilities and staffed with experts-hunters. So the problem with the staff in modern hunting is acute. To solve problems of the population of the North and intensification of traditional biological nature need economic help from the state and the security of the farms of a new type of literate specialists (managers, merchandisers, technologists).
In a deep crisis and turned out to be a profitable part of the hunting economy of the Yenisei Siberia in the fishing industry reindeer husbandry on the Taimyr Peninsula. As a result of this multi-year mismanagement of a million tundra from the Taimyr population of wild reindeer, according to the latest censuses, there are not more than 400 thousand individuals. Modern development of tundra reindeer 38-40 thousand individuals according to the quota allocated is practically not controlled by the state. To 6 thousand wild reindeer are harvested for food on a quota of indigenous small peoples in places of traditional nature use. Increased the volume of unlicensed production of deer (up to 8-10 thousand individuals) and a massive influx of this business area with many seasonal hunters.
In the hunting economy of Siberia acute problem of predation wolf, bear, foxes, stray dogs. She, like the problem of the poaching created by the inefficient system of hunting management, which is not built on the quality of work (few predators and violators of hunting) and nutrient environment — the number of extracted predators detained offenders records, collected fines and lawsuits, etc. All work ketoprofene ultimately comes down to a paper routine (Kubilay, approvals, permits, orders, materials, faceshield, etc.). Until the beginning of perestroika in the Krasnoyarsk ketoprofene was 180 Rangers. Judging by the present number of employees in the areas of Rangers (staff — 30 persons), one inspector on two or three areas that have a large area to protect wild ungulates from wolves and poachers no one. The existing system of hunting management needs to be reformed. To increase the number of wild ungulates in the regional offices of the hunt, you need to create along with the service of the hunting management Department services monitoring and regulation of number of predators (wolf, bear, Fox).
Far from ideal the approved hunting regulations, especially the terms of its regulation. Limits and permissions to restrict only the production, but not production itself. Sable hunting is permitted almost until March. Not referring to low commercial quality winter valuable sable fur, it should be noted the negative impact of late hunting as the reproduction of its resources. When hunting “on slikah” during the “false rut” in late January, unwittingly, a good hunter, maybe one and a half weeks to destroy the entire reproductive part of the local sable on their own site. Hunting for sable needs to be limited to the beginning of each calendar year or at least until January 15. With the high cost of re-getting to remote areas of a professional samoletiki and hunt. This saves here reproductive potential and feeds the sable in the autumn of youngsters much mastered fisheries resources near “Amateur” land.
In connection with the natural cycles of the reproductive potential of proteins, the environmental conditions the timing of its reproduction, development of young, molting hairline volatile for years within the ten days. In the second year rise in the number of proteins grown-up puppies-females from the first litter have time in the summer to mate and produce their litter. The young are later shed. When shooting squirrels with the permitted Rules October 15, at the beginning of the season their skins are still off. They are used by hunters to bait, or as feed to the dogs. What here saving technologies?! With the natural cyclical timing of the opening of the hunting season for squirrel should be made to the preliminary (20-30 days) trial shooting.
The timing of the hunt (October 15) on semi-aquatic species of animals (mink and muskrat) still do not correspond to the commercial value of their pelts. Pelts produced in October Provolone wild mink, with a slightly furred tail and blue leather usually collection points are not accepted. Most produced in October of old pelts of muskrats still recovrey with a matte old spine, the skins of young animals — with the occasional fluff and undeveloped spine. Hunting season for mink and muskrats also are to be corrected trial catches. For the competent organization of rational hunting at the optimum time, monitoring of population dynamics, status, sex and age structure and reproduction of valuable hunting species in the region, it is necessary to revive the scientific departments VNIIOZ.
Inefficient, poor use of resources fur types, supposedly not using modern procurement demand (Fox, Arctic Fox, mink, muskrat, beaver), generates an extremely high density of population, leading to epizootics and mass death and even Pets. Increased resources for foxes, Arctic foxes are one of the main natural factors that reduce the growth of hare, grouse and waterfowl. What should I do? Mass extermination is inhumane resources and not linked to the ethics of hunting, vaccination of populations is wasteful for users. Controller can only be Providence. Fox hunting can be very profitable, sports (in pens, flag frames, with the approach) and fishing, using traps, and forbidden loops. The hunters Fox needs to be free from paying for a ticket and even encouraged a free hunt on other species. Limiting the number of foxes will increase the throughput of hunting.
The demand for “unclaimed” fur and resuscitation hunting economy regions can contribute to the emergence of modern sewing fur companies. Local quality fur products can compete with the flow of imported fur. But hunting should be closely linked with processing and modern tailoring of fur products. Judging by sales, in the salons of imported fur products, the demand for the above unclaimed fur remains good. With the development of the processing and sewing of the fur industry in 1950-1960 there was a huge demand not only on Fox but also on the summer fur species: mole, gopher, ground squirrel, water vole and even a barn rat. Summer the raw materials were processed and used mainly for decoration of clothes, sewing of children’s products, also for the manufacture of haberdashery and Souvenirs. If you are interested and take the initiative of the Federal and regional authorities, and little demand fur resources can even bring companies profit.
Rational use of resources of wild ungulates in the regions is possible only at elimination of the reasons for the development of social poaching. These include false bans hunting of ungulates and quota limits for their withdrawal (to 5%) with prolonged duration. Given prospective foreign (European, North American) experience of maintaining hunting economy, where productivity of wild ungulates was hundreds of times higher than in Russia, the period of hunting of ungulates must be short (10-15 days). Permits should be used in the first half of winter in the collective, rarely individual hunts. Hunting should take place under the control of the hunters, public and private inspectors. It is necessary to restore the Institute of public inspectors with the right of arrest, inspection, documentation of violation. The timing and limit the hunting must take into account the actual resource status of ungulates in the hunting grounds with regard to their seasonal migrations.
Flawed methodology faceshield in late winter with a far-fetched scalar ratio of the length of a daily course (and not in terms of the daily activity of animals on trails) does not reflect the actual number of ungulates in the area. We need to improve and to implement more accurate predbaykalya surveys for fur-bearing species of animals and upland game, wild prey during their breeding season.
One of the most efficient forms of use of resources of hunting animals is farming. Captive and semi-free breeding of wild ungulates in the neglected, overgrown forestation of the land fields and meadows turns out to be more profitable cattle. This is the way of increase of productivity of hunting areas, reduce hunting pressure on wild game in nature. 100 hunting farms in Russia with a total area of 2 thousand hectares of land mined up to 100 thousand head of wild ungulates (50 individuals per hectare). This is an obvious path of development of small business in the village. Wild animals in cages are the property of the owner, however, a more economical, puluwannam the animals they will automatically become the property of the state, where the timing, volume and shape of the prey determines the hunting official. It really limits the development of semi-free farmers in the regions.
The current crisis in hunting to a considerable extent lies in the fact that it is regarded only from the perspective of hunting and “management” of resources of hunting animals, not as a branch of material production in its socio-economic problems. Current Federal law “About hunting” reflects only the production process in the hunting economy, but problems of commercial hunting does not solve. Required the Law “On hunting”, the law defines hunting as a specific branch of agriculture. Need to streamline regulations in hunting in accordance with Federal law and to determine the status of professional hunters, their basic rights and responsibilities.
Need game managers-professionals who know the organization and Economics of the industry, are able to rationally exploit the resources of hunting animals, owns the methods of their accounting, forecasting growth, the valuation of the use, reproduction, protection. Universities are necessary, but unclaimed in the modern hunting specialists. Judging by the limited number of professional hunters, hunting inspectors in modern hunting economy, “the Strategy of development of the hunting economy of Russia”, apparently stuck in the upper echelons of “bureaucratic madness”.
I want to finish my article with the words G. I. Sukhomirov: “For the successful solution of the above problems, it is necessary… to adopt the Law “About hunting economy”. After all, hunting is just the production process in hunting, although the main”.